Ammonia release from heated 'street' cannabis leaf and its potential toxic effects on cannabis users.
Bloor RN, Wang TS, Spanel P, Smith D.
Academic Psychiatry Unit, Keele University Medical School, Academic Suite, Harplands Hospital, Hilton Road, Harpfields, Stoke-on-Trent, UK. email@example.com
AIMS: To use selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the molecular species emitted by heated 'street' cannabis plant material, especially targeting ammonia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of 'street' cannabis leaf, held under a UK Home Office licence, were prepared by finely chopping and mixing the material. The samples were then heated in commercially available devices. The air containing the released gaseous compounds was sampled into the SIFT-MS instrument for analysis. Smoke from standard 3% National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) cannabis cigarettes was also analysed.
FINDINGS: For 'street' cannabis, ammonia was present in the air samples from the devices at levels approaching 200 parts per million (p.p.m.). This is compared with peak levels of 10 p.p.m. using NIDA samples of known provenance and tetrahydrocannabinol content (3%). Several other compounds were present at lower levels, including acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, acetic acid and uncharacterized terpenes.
CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the risks of inhaling the smoke directly from burning cannabis has led to the development of a number of alternative methods of delivery, which are claimed to be safer than direct smoking. Ammonia at toxic levels is produced from heating 'street' cannabis in these commercially available devices. Thus, the use of these devices to deliver 'street' cannabis is now open to question and further research is needed to investigate their safety.
é isso que eu falei... isso aconteceu em outro contexto... na Inglaterra e na maconha de rua... nao sabemos o que aconteceu com ela antes... podem ter adicionado ou nao a Amonia... mas mesmo assim, é uma informacao solida, um bom argumrnto. Se um argumento assim prova que eu estou errado, admito meu erro e ainda aprendo... assim se constói o conhecimento... nao falando que um usuário "só escreve merda"
Sobre a pesquisa
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of 'street' cannabis leaf
Por que leafs?? Nao seria todo o plant material??
The samples were then heated in commercially available devices.
Seriam os vaporizadores.... porque eles foram "esquentados" e nao "queimados"... isso pode realmente levar à conclusao da pesquisa:
Ammonia at toxic levels is produced from heating 'street' cannabis in these commercially available devices. Thus, the use of these devices to deliver 'street' cannabis is now open to question and further research is needed to investigate their safety.
De toda maneira, essa Cannabis analisada como grupo controle (a do NIDA) nao veio de traficantes... imagino que seja cultivada, já que é estandarizada... o que leva à crer que existe Amonia na Cannabis... mas, a questão: seria então pelo armazenamento? Ou a substancia aparece naturalmente na planta?
A pesquisa é boa mas tem alguns buracos, alguns pontos sem amarras... mas já dá uma direcao...